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Safe operation guarantee of new energy vehicles! Introduction and selection of high voltage connector for electric vehicle

2019/11/01 18:21
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[Abstract]:
Pureelectricvehiclesandplug-inhybridelectricvehiclesgenerallyadopthighvoltageofmorethan300Vandhighcurrentofseveralhundredamperes.Highvoltagecircuitisthekeycomponentofthehighvoltageelectricalsystemofthewholevehicle.Itsreliabilityandsafetyarerelatedtothereliabilityofthewholevehiclesystemandevenpersonalsafety.Itistheguaranteeofthesafeoperationofnewenergyvehicles,anditsimportanceisself-evident.Asanimportantpartofthevehicle'sfunctionalmodulesandhigh-voltagecircuit,theaccuratedesign,analysisandselectionofhigh-voltageconnectorisofgreatsignificanceforelectricvehicles.   1.Introductiontohighvoltageconnector   Thehigh-voltageconnectorisakindoffunctionalcomponentwhichmakesthecircuitturnonandoffwiththehelpofelectricalsignalormechanicalforce.Itiscomposedoffixedendelectricalconnector(hereinafterreferredtoassocket)andfreeendelectricalconnector(hereinafterreferredtoasplug).   Highvoltageconnectorstructuregenerallyincludes:contactpair,sealingring,buttlockingmechanism,bracket,shell,positioningmechanism,highvoltageinterlockmechanism,shieldingmechanism,insulationstructure,etc.Generalterminationmethodsincludewelding,crimping,throughholeconnection,screwconnection,etc.Therearealsovariousinstallationmethods,includingpaneltype,cabletype,nuttype,throughwalltype,etc.Intheoverallstructure,themaneuverabilityneedstobeconsidered,includingthesizeofmaneuveringspace,antimisoperationstructure,connectioninplaceindication,etc.Theinternalstructureneedstobeconsidered:thedetachabilityofthecontact,thetypeandstructureformofthecontact,etc.   Fortheuseperformanceofhigh-voltageconnector,itisquitedifferentfromlow-voltageconnector.Theelectricalperformance,mechanicalperformanceandenvironmentalperformanceofhigh-voltageconnectorhavehigherrequirements.Itmainlyincludesthefollowingaspects:   1)Electricalproperties   Electricalperformanceincludesworkingvoltage,ratedcurrent,contactresistanceofinnerconductorandouterconductor,characteristicimpedance,VSWR,shieldingperformanceandanti-interferenceperformance.Theratedvoltageoftheconnectormustbegreaterthanthepeakvoltageoftheequipment.Generally,itisnecessarytotestthewithstandvoltage,insulationresistance,creepagedistance,etc.oftheconnectoraccordingtothestandard.Atthesametime,confirmthenormalusecurrentoftheequipment.Theratedcurrentoftheconnectormustbegreaterthanthenormalusecurrentoftheequipment.Whenthereisapeakcurrent,confirmthetimeofthepeakcurrent.Generally,itisnecessarytotesttheterminaloftheconnectoraccordingtothestandardContactresistance,terminaltemperaturerise,terminalretentionforce,cablepressureforce,connectorlockingdevicestrength,etc.Inordertoensurethesafetyperformanceoftheconnection,thehigh-voltagecontrolcircuitisgenerallyformedthroughhigh-voltageinterlock,soastoavoidthepotentialhazardscausedbythedisconnectionofthehigh-voltagecircuit,whichrequiresthetestandcalibrationofthevehiclecontrolsystem.Inaddition,EMCrequirementsofhigh-voltageconnectorareincreasinglyprominent.Atpresent,itcanberequiredtodesignwithshieldingpartstomeet360degreeshielding,andtheshieldinggapisrequiredtobelessthan2mmoruseelectromagneticsealinggasket.Generally,theshieldingeffectivenessneedstobemeasuredaccordingtostandards.   2)Mechanicalproperties   Mechanicalenergymainlyincludesvibrationandimpact,mechanicallife,singleholeseparationandtotalseparationforce.Generally,itwillevaluatetheusetimesofproducts,whethertheconnectionandlockingmethodsarereliable,etc.Asapartthatisnotoftendisassembled,thehigh-voltageconnectorinthevehiclecanbepluggedandunpluggedmorethan50times,soastojudgewhetherthemechanicallifeoftheconnectormeetstherequirements.   3)Environmentalperformance   Environmentalperformanceincludestemperature,humidity,vibration,impact,saltspray,dustandsealingperformance(includingwaterpressure,rain),etc.First,confirmthemaximumambienttemperatureoftheequipment.Theworkingtemperatureoftheconnectormustbegreaterthantheambienttemperatureoftheequipmentplustheterminaltemperaturerisewhentheratedcurrentisapplied.Iftheworkingtemperatureoftheconnectormeetstherequirements,itisnecessarytotesttheaging,temperatureandhumidity,highandlowtemperatureimpactoftheconnectoraccordingtothestandards.Intheaspectofenvironmentaltoleranceperformanceofhighvoltageconnector,IPprotectionperformancehasthegreatestimpact.Generally,watertightnesstestorairtightnesstestisadoptedtoverify.Theairtightnesstesthasnonegativeeffectontheproduct,andiswidelyusedatpresent.Inaddition,whethertheflameretardantperformancecanmeetthestandardisalsoanimportantsafetyindex.   2.Selectionofhighvoltageconnector   Accordingtotheactualneedsoftheuseofthesituation,theaccurateselectionofhigh-voltageconnectorsisakeyissuefordesignerstoconsider.Thefollowingisaselectionanalysisfortheuseofnewenergyvehicles.   1)Selectthetypeaccordingtotheplanofhigh-pressuresystemofthewholevehicle   Thehigh-voltagesystemofthewholevehicleincludespowerbattery,motor/motorcontroller,PDU,DCorACchargingsystem,electricheating,electricairconditioning,DCDCandotherelectricaccessorysystems.Firstofall,determinetheelectricalprincipleofthevehiclehighvoltage,pre

纯电动汽车和插电式混合动力汽车一般采取超过300V的高电压和几百安培大电流,高压回路是整车高压电器系统的关键部件,其可靠性、安全性关系到整车系统可靠甚至人身安全等,是新能源汽车安全运行的保障,重要性不言而喻。高压连接器作为整车各功能模块的连接及高压回路的重要组成部分,对其准确设计分析与选型对于电动汽车具有重要意义。

1、高压连接器介绍

高压连接器是一种借助于电信号或机械力的作用使电路接通、断开的功能性元件,由固定端电连接器(以下称插座),自由端电连接器(以下称插头)组成。

高压连接器结构一般包括:接触对、密封圈、对接锁止机构,支架,外壳,定位机构,高压互锁机构,屏蔽机构,绝缘结构等。一般的端接方式有焊接、压接、过孔连接、螺钉连接等。安装方式也多种多样包括面板式、电缆式、螺母式、穿墙式等。总体结构上需要考虑操纵适宜性,包括操纵空间大小、防误操纵结构、连接到位指示等。内部结构需要考虑:接触件的可拆卸性、接触件的种类和结构形式等。

对于高压连接器使用性能,与低压连接器有较大不同,高压连接器的电性能、机械性能和环境性能上有较高的要求。主要包括以下方面:

1)电性能

电气性能包括工作电压、额定电流、内导体和外导体的接触电阻、特性阻抗、电压驻波比、屏蔽性能及抗干扰性能等。连接器的额定电压必须大于设备的峰值电压,一般需要按标准测试连接器的耐电压、绝缘电阻、爬电距离等;同时确认设备的正常使用电流,连接器的额定电流必须大于设备的正常使用电流,有峰值电流时,需确认峰值电流的时间,一般需要按标准测连接器的端子接触电阻、端子温升、端子保持力、线缆压接力、连接器锁紧装置强度等。为保证连接的安全性能,一般会通过高压互锁形成高压控制回路,避免高压回路断开带来的潜在隐患,需要整车控制系统的测试与标定。此外高压连接器EMC需求也日益突出,目前可要求带屏蔽件设计,满足360度屏蔽,要求屏蔽缺口小于2mm或用电磁密封衬垫,一般需要按标准测屏蔽效能等。

2)机械性能

机械能能主要包括振动冲击、机械寿命、单孔分离和总分离力等。一般会评估产品的使用次数,连接、锁紧方式是否可靠等。车内高压连接器作为不经常拆卸的部分,一般定义插拔可在50次以上,以判断连接器的机械寿命是否符合要求。

3)环境性能

环境性能包括温度、湿度、振动、冲击、盐雾、灰尘及密封性能(包括水压、淋雨)等。首先需要确认设备的最大环境温度,连接器的工作温度必须大于设备的环境温度加上通额定电流时的端子温升。而连接器标的工作温度是否符合,需要按标准测试连接器的老化、温度与湿度、高低温冲击等。高压连接器的环境耐受性能方面,IP防护性能的影响最大。一般采取水密性测试或气密性测试的方式来予以验证。气密性测试对产品不产生负面影响,目前普遍被采用。此外阻燃性能能否满足标准也是一项重要安全指标。

2、高压连接器选型

根据实际需要的使用情况,对高压连接器准确的选型是设计者要考虑的一项关键问题。以下针对新能源汽车的使用情况进行选型分析。

1)根据整车高压系统的规划进行选型

整车高压系统包括动力电池、电机/电机控制器、PDU、直流或交流充电系统、电加热、电空调、DCDC以及其他电动配件系统等。首先,确定整车高压的电气原理,初步明确整车的电压平台,以及各设备的用/配电量,确定载流量的大小。其次根据实际的用电设备的布局,确定所用的连接器采用单芯或者多芯。

HVC800系列连接器是智绿专门为电动汽车及混合动力汽车内部的高压连接系统研究开发的一款塑料外壳高压连接器,产品具有优良的屏蔽性能及IP防护,该系列连接器包含1+2/2+2/3+2三种排布,有直头和弯头两种插头连接方式,可压接25/35/ 50mm2线缆,载流能力最大可达250A。可广泛应用于电动汽车大电流的用电设备,如PDU、动力电池、电机控制器、逆变器等设备,为其提供稳定的高压、大电流传输,